The aim of all these aggressive defense measures is to assure that any predator that eats (or tries to eat) one of them won't be in a hurry to repeat the experience. Some caterpillars obtain protection by associating themselves with ants. The Lycaenid butterflies are particularly well known. Recent findings have shown that they communicate with their ant protectors by means of vibrations as well as chemical means.














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Some caterpillars are considered serious pests of agriculture or forestry. The include the Small White butterfly (brassicas), the Pine Butterfly, and the Codling Moth (apples).

Images 1 Through 3 Are From The U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service
Images 4 Through 16 Are From The U.S.D.A.






























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